1. Congenital Heart Defect
This is seen in one of 110 births with numerous causes, like genetic abnormalities, or possible mistakes during fetal development.
It is detected during routine checkup, when an abnormal heart sound (murmur) is discovered.
Some of these murmurs are meaningless but test should be done to know if there’s a defect in play.
• Leg, abdomen or eye swell.
• Difficulty in breathing
• Rapid breathing
• Feeding problems
• Mechanical aid like pacemaker
2. Sickle Cell Disease
This disease occurs in 625 births. New born are given blood test to detect the disorder.
This disorder is a condition in which there is not enough red blood cells that can carry enough oxygen round the body.
• Shortness of breath
• Affected child may look pale
• The baby becomes vulnerable to serious bacteria infection
There is presently no cure for this disease but preventive methods such as immunization and penicillin treatment are done to avoid other bacteria infection as the child is practically open.
But ways to reduce the frequent pain is under study.
3. Down Syndrome
This disorder causes mental retardation. It is recorded in one of 800 births.
It is most common in older women. It is caused by an error in cell division identified as non-disjunction.
The normal human has 46 chromosomes but those with down syndrome has 47 chromosomes which causes abnormal physical features.
• Small ears that fold at the top
• Slanted eyes
• Small mouth that makes the eyes appear larger
• Small nose, flat nasal bridge
• Short neck
• Small hands with short fingers
Most down syndrome children may have possible visual/hearing impairment, ear infections, heart defects or intestinal malfunctions.
• Can be detected while the baby is still in he womb
• Cannot be cured
• Down syndrome can also be detected during child birth
• Early therapist intervention
• Drugs and supplements
• Assistive measures like in school- special pencils that can make writing easier and enjoyable, hearing aid, and others